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Theory, Research and Practice

Psychology of Well-Being Cover Image

Table 2 Psychological needs, their description (Sheldon et al. 2001), and the questionnaire items

From: Wellbeing in the Making: Peoples’ Experiences with Wearable Activity Trackers

Need Description Questionnaire items
During this experience I felt…
Autonomy Feeling like you are the cause of your own actions rather than feeling that external forces or pressure are the cause of your action That my choices were based on my true interests and values
Free to do things my own way
That my choices expressed my “true self”
Competence Feeling that you are very capable and effective in your actions rather than feeling incompetent or ineffective That I was successfully completing difficult tasks and projects
That I was taking on and mastering hard challenges
Very capable in what I did
Relatedness Feeling that you have regular intimate contact with people who care about you rather than feeling lonely and uncared of A sense of contact with people who care for me, and whom I care for
Close and connected with other people who are important to me
A strong sense of intimacy with the people I spent time with
Self-actualization Feeling that you are developing your best potentials and making life meaningful rather than feeling stagnant and that life does not have much meaning That I was “becoming who I really am”
A sense of deeper purpose in life
A deeper understanding of myself and my place in the universe
Physical thriving Feeling that your body is healthy and well-taken care of rather than feeling out of shape and unhealthy That I got enough exercise and was in excellent physical condition
That my body was getting just what it needed
A strong sense of physical well-being
Pleasure-stimulation Feeling that you get plenty of enjoyment and pleasure rather than feeling bored and understimulated by life That I was experiencing new sensations and activities
Intense physical pleasure and enjoyment
That I had found new sources and types of stimulation for myself
Luxury Feeling that you have plenty of money to buy most of what you want rather than feeling like a poor person who has no nice possessions Able to buy most of the things I want
That I had nice things and possessions
That I got plenty of money
Security Feeling safe and in control of your life rather than feeling uncertain and threatened by your circumstances That my life was structured and predictable
Glad that I have a comfortable set of routines and habits
Safe from threats and uncertainties
Popularity Feeling that you are liked, respected, and have influence over others rather than feeling like a person whose advice or opinion nobody is interested in That I was a person whose advice others seek out and follow
That I strongly influenced others’ beliefs and behavior
That I had strong impact on what other people did
Self-esteem Feeling that you are a worthy person who is as good as anyone else rather than feeling like a ‘‘loser” That I had many positive qualities
Quite satisfied with who I am
A strong sense of self-respect