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Theory, Research and Practice

Psychology of Well-Being Cover Image

Table 2 School climate predictors of mental and emotional wellbeing at the end of primary school, first year secondary school and second year secondary school

From: The Relationship Between School Climate and Mental and Emotional Wellbeing Over the Transition from Primary to Secondary School

  Safety at school School connectedness Teacher connectedness Peer support
β 95 % Confidence interval β 95 % Confidence interval β 95 % Confidence interval β 95 % Confidence interval
End of primary school
 Mental wellbeing (DASS)
  Depression −1.80 (−2.73, −0.86)** −2.28 (−3.08, −1.48)** −0.11 (−0.61, 0.39) −2.13 (−3.41, −0.84)**
  Anxiety −1.48 (−2.27, −0.68)** −1.22 (−1.84, −0.54)** −0.01 (−0.44, 0.41) −1.56 (−2.64, −0.47)**
  Stress −2.36 (−3.44, −1.27)** −1.78 (−2.71, −0.86)** −0.05 (−0.64, 0.53) −2.97 (−4.46, −1.48)**
 Emotional wellbeing (SDQ)
  Emotional symptoms −0.79 (−1.11, −0.47)** −0.67 (−0.94, −0.39)** 0.14 (−0.03, 0.32) −1.25 (−1.69, −0.81)**
  Conduct problems −0.15 (−0.26, 0.03)* −0.16 (−0.26, −0.07)** −0.07 (−0.13, −0.01)* −0.19 (−0.34, −0.03)*
  Hyperactivity −0.34 (−0.53, −0.15)** −0.22 (−0.38, −0.05)** −0.20 (−0.30, −0.10)** −0.36 (−0.62, −0.10)**
  Peer problems −0.24 (−0.35, −0.13)** −0.34 (−0.43, −0.24)** 0.07 (0.01, 0.13)* −0.82 (−0.97, −0.67)**
  Pro-social behaviour 0.19 (−0.04, 0.43) 0.39 (0.19, 0.59)** 0.36 (0.24, 0.49)** 0.72 (0.39, 1.04)**
  Total difficulties −0.99 (−1.34, −0.63)** −0.98 (−1.29, −0.68)** −0.12 (−0.31, 0.07) −1.80 (−2.30, −1.31)**
End of first year secondary school
 Mental Health (DASS)
  Depression −3.03 (−4.02, −2.04)** −3.14 (−3.91, −2.38)** −0.22 (−0.70, 0.25) −0.50 (−1.80, 0.80)
  Anxiety −4.01 (−4.84, −3.18)** −1.39 (−2.03, −0.75)** 0.01 (−0.38, 0.40) −0.66 (−1.73, 0.43)
  Stress −2.97 (−3.94, −1.99)** −2.58 (−3.32, −1.82)** 0.03 (−0.44, 0.49) −0.51 (−1.78, 0.77)
 Emotional wellbeing (SDQ)
  Emotional symptoms −0.74 (−1.04, −0.45)** −0.63 (−0.85, −0.40)** −0.05 (−0.19, 0.08) −0.65 (−1.04, −0.26)**
  Conduct problems −0.61 (−0.85, −0.37)** −0.36 (−0.55, −0.18)** −0.25 (−0.36, −0.14)** −0.04 (−0.36, 0.28)
  Hyperactivity −0.19 (−0.50, 0.13) −0.70 (−0.94, −0.46)** −0.32 (−0.47, −0.17)** −0.26 (−0.68, 0.15)
  Peer problems −0.57 (−0.77, −0.37)** −0.45 (−0.61, −0.30)** −0.01 (−0.11, 0.08) −1.39 (−1.66, 1.12)**
  Pro-social behaviour −0.12 (−0.35, 0.12) 0.27 (0.09, 0.45)** 0.32 (0.20, 0.43)** 0.93 (0.61, 1.24)**
  Total difficulties −2.05 (−2.78, −1.31)** −2.11 (−2.67, −1.54)** −0.62 (−0.97, −0.28)** −2.05 (−3.02, −1.07)**
 End of second year secondary school
 Mental wellbeing (DASS)
  Depression −2.48 (−3.40, −1.56)** −2.70 (−3.34, −2.06)** 0.37 (−0.03, 0.77) −2.85 (−4.02, −1.68)**
  Anxiety −2.02 (−2.81, −1.24)** −1.82 (−2.37, −1.28)** 0.21 (−0. 12, 0.55) −2.90 (−3.89, −1.92)**
  Stress −2.13 (−3.00, −1.26)** −2.12 (−2.72, −1.52)** 0.42 (0.04, 0.79)* 0.37 (0.32, 0.42)**
 Emotional wellbeing (SDQ)
  Emotional symptoms −0.72 (−0.96, −0.48)** −0.55 (−0.71, −0.39)** 0.02 (−0.08, 0.12) −0.38 (−0.68, −0.08)*
  Conduct problems −0.35 (−0.55, −0.15)* −0.54 (−0.67, −0.40)** −0.07 (−0.16, 0.38) −0.13 (−0.12, −0.38)
  Hyperactivity −0.44 (−0.67, −0.21)** −0.45 (−0.61, −0.30)** −0.19 (−0.28, −0.09)** −0.21 (−0.08, 0.50)
  Peer problems −0.51 (−0.67, −0.34)** −0.34 (−0.45, −0.23)** −0.05 (−0.12, 0.02) −1.09 (−1.30, −0.88)**
  Pro-social behaviour 0.13 (−0.08, 0.34) 0.39 (−0.24, 0.57)** 0.20 (0.11, 0.29)** 0.64 (0.38, 0.91)**
  Total difficulties −1.94 (−2.52, −1.36)** −1.82 (−2.22, −1.41)** −0.32 (−0.57, −0.07)* −0.90 (−1.63, −0.15)*
  1. Models at the end of primary school controlled for gender. All models at the end of first and second year of secondary school controlled for gender and measures at the previous time point
  2. * Significant at p < 0.05
  3. ** Significant at p < 0.01