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Theory, Research and Practice

Table 2 Component coverage of existing scales as determined in Study 2

From: Components of Appreciative Functioning: A Thematic Analysis of Relevant Literature and Content Analysis of Existing Measurement Scales

Component Scale Type of AF
GQ-6 GRAT-R AI VIA GAC GF GT
Attention and Awareness
 Present moment 1–5 3–7 0–1
 Simple pleasures 13–14 9–11
 Positive searching 1 1 5–6 2
 Reminiscence 1
 ‘Have’ focus 1 3-4 11–16 1–2
Comprehension and Coping
 Beliefs of abundance 2–3 2–3 0–1 2 ?
 Counter-factual thinking 4–6
 Social comparison 4–8 3
 Impermanence 1 6–7
 Schemas 0–2 4–5 0–1 ?
 Refocussing 2
 Benefit finding 2–6
 Self-concept 1 3
 Self-efficacy ?
Emotions
 Affective gratefulness 2–5 3–10 0–7 3
 Contentment 2–3
 Acceptance 0–7 ?
 Privilege 10–11 8–10 1
 Awe 3 2–3 0–1 ?
Goals and Habits
 Simplicity 2–3 0–3
 Valuing gratefulness 5 2–3
 Intention and motivation 1 1–6 2
 Rituals 1–2 8–9 3–4
 Co-operation 2–6
 Savouring 1–2 2
Relationships and Virtues
 Agency of others 2 8–9 5–6
 Costly benefit 4–5
 Relational impact
 Social expression 0–2 0–1 7–8 3 ?
 Kindness ?
 Relationships 0–3 2 6 0–1 ?
 Social norms
  1. Numbers indicate how many items in each scale are relevant to each component, with italic typeface used where five or more items are relevant. AF = appreciative functioning; GF = gratefulness; GT = gratitude. Existing measurement scales: GQ-6 = Gratefulness Questionnaire (McCullough et al. 2002); GRAT-R = Gratitude, Resentment and Appreciation Test (Thomas and Watkins 2003; Watkins et al. 2003); AI = Appreciation Inventory (Adler and Fagley 2005); VIA = gratitude subscale of the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (Peterson et al. 2005); GAC = Gratitude Adjective Checklist (McCullough et al. 2002).