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Theory, Research and Practice

Table 1 Components of appreciative functioning identified in Study 1

From: Components of Appreciative Functioning: A Thematic Analysis of Relevant Literature and Content Analysis of Existing Measurement Scales

Component Description
Attention and Awareness
 Present moment Attending to stimuli in the present moment
 Simple pleasures Noticing simple things of value
 Positive searching Searching for positive aspects of situations
 Reminiscence Attending to positive past situations
 ‘Have’ focus Attending to tangible and intangible assets
Comprehension and Coping
 Beliefs of abundance Belief that one’s life has many good things
 Counter-factual thinking Considering situations that might have been
 Social comparison Comparing one’s situation to those of others
 Impermanence Appreciating the temporary nature of situations
 Schemas Beliefs that influence gratefulness
 Refocussing Using gratefulness to combat negative emotions
 Benefit finding Finding benefits of negative situations
 Self-concept Viewing oneself as a grateful person
 Self-efficacy Perceived ability to regulate one’s gratefulness
 Affective gratefulness The frequency or strength of feeling grateful
 Contentment Feeling content with one’s life
 Acceptance Lacking feelings of resentment or regret
 Privilege Feeling privileged or fortunate and not entitled
 Awe Feelings of awe and wonder
Goals and Habits
 Simplicity Valuing non-material assets over material goods
 Valuing gratefulness Valuing gratefulness as important
 Intention and motivation Intending to experience gratefulness
 Rituals Having regular habits that promote gratefulness
 Co-operation Working together with others to achieve goals
 Savouring Rituals enhancing the benefits of positive events
Relationships and Virtues
 Agency of others Benefits provided through the agency of others
 Costly benefit Cost to the benefactors of their agency
 Relational impact Social consequences of gratitude
 Social expression Expressing gratitude to others
 Kindness Giving or showing kindness to others
 Relationships One’s relationships with others
 Social norms Social norms that support gratefulness