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Theory, Research and Practice

Table 2 PSI subscale means (and standard deviations) pre- and post-program with repeated measures ANOVA results

From: Managing performance anxiety and improving mental skills in conservatoire students through performance psychology training: a pilot study

PSI subscale Pre    Post    F d
  Mean (SD) Min Max Mean (SD) Min Max   
Optimal energy 55.61 (13.02) 25 90 58.23 (14.98) 30 85 1.63 .24
Performance energy 66.16 (14.57) 40 95 61.29 (12.58) 35 85 4.32* .52
Energy regulation 51.81 (21.85) 25 95 57.10 (19.99) 20 100 2.72 .36
Ability to learn 75.10 (12.11) 55 100 83.23 (12.88) 50 100 20.05*** .99
Memorizing music 53.10 (28.02) 20 100 60.00 (27.05) 20 100 6.54* .70
Self-talk 55.58 (19.12) 30 95 64.36 (20.20) 30 90 8.05** .78
Expectancy 63.74 (15.09) 40 90 73.23 (15.79) 45 100 11.23** .90
Confronting fear 56.13 (20.24) 20 90 66.13 (16.47) 35 95 15.25*** .97
Building courage 58.65 (15.84) 30 90 68.23 (15.58) 35 100 16.63*** .98
Confronting failure 54.13 (17.46) 25 85 64.52 (21.27) 30 100 8.43** .80
Getting mentally quiet 52.68 (14.86) 35 90 65.81 (15.39) 30 100 18.65*** .99
Focusing past distractions 63.58 (17.83) 30 95 74.52 (19.03) 25 100 9.03** .83
Accessing alpha 59.07 (14.82) 35 90 65.32 (15.91) 30 95 5.35* .61
Building stamina 71.32 (13.46) 35 95 78.71 (13.78) 40 100 9.91** .86
Concentrating on command 71.65 (14.50) 45 100 81.29 (14.02) 40 100 17.95*** .98
Recovering from mistakes 57.42 (17.98) 20 95 65.16 (21.04) 25 100 4.38* .53
Mental toughness 67.61 (14.57) 40 95 72.10 (15.10) 45 100 3.18 .41
  1. Note: Degrees of freedom for all F tests are 1,30. d = observed power. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001.