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Theory, Research and Practice

Table 1 Performance Skills Inventory (PSI) factors and 11 performance success strategies

From: Managing performance anxiety and improving mental skills in conservatoire students through performance psychology training: a pilot study

PSI skill factor PSI sub-scales Intervention strategies
1 Energy Regulation   
Ability to manage performance anxiety Optimal Energy Energy
  Performance Energy Centering: controlling performance energy
Audition Energy
Energy Regulation
2 Preparation   
Ability to acquire and retain new information Ability to Learn Preparation I Developing better practice habits
  Practice Habits Preparation II Improving learning: overview of five learning modes, mental rehearsal, prioritizing material and identifying obstacles
  Memorizing Music Preparation III Memorizing music
  Overall Preparation  
3 Confidence   
Self-belief Self-Talk Confidence I Improving self-talk, developing positive self-talk habits
Expectancy Confidence II Mental rehearsal
Mental Rehearsal  
Overall Confidence
4 Courage   
Willingness to confront fears and take risks Confronting Fear Courage Becoming a more courageous performer, overcoming fear of failure
Building Courage
Confronting Failure
Overall Courage
5 Focus   
Focus on command, not attending to distractions Getting Present Focus Focusing past distractions
Achieving Mental Quiet
Focusing Past Distractions
6 Concentration   
Quiet mind under pressure of performance Accessing Alpha Concentration Concentrating on demand, energy and concentration
Building Stamina
Concentrating on Command
Overall Concentration
7 Resilience   
Ability to bounce back Recovering from Mistakes Resilience I Rebound faster from mistakes
from adversity Mental Toughness Resilience II Becoming mentally tough, training for adversity
Overall Tesilience