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Theory, Research and Practice

Table 4 High psychological distress, caregiver status and other covariates, Thai Cohort Study 2009

From: Psychological distress and mental health of Thai caregivers

Cohort characteristics N = 60,569 High psychological distress (Kessler-6)* Adjusted Multivariate Odds Ratios [95% Confidence Intervals]
  Males Females
Caregiver status
  Non caregiver reference reference
  Part-time caregiver 1.33 [1.20-1.49] 1.32 [1.20-1.44]
  Full-time caregiver 1.78 [1.49-2.13] 1.45 [1.24-1.70]
Demographic characteristics
 Age (year)   
  20-29 1.39 [1.18-1.63] 1.62 [1.42-1.86]
  30-39 1.20 [1.06-1.37] 1.39 [1.23-1.57]
  40+ reference reference
 Marital status   
  Married reference reference
  Never married 1.27 [1.13-1.44] 1.21 [1.10-1.32]
  Separated, divorced, widowed 1.86 [1.53-2.27] 1.79 [1.55-2.07]
Socio-geographic characteristics
 Household monthly income (Baht)   
  <10,000 2.26 [1.89-2.70] 1.91 [162–2.23]
  10,000-19,999 1.73 [1.46-2.05] 1.56 [1.34-1.80]
  20,000-30,000 1.20 [1.03-1.39] 1.31 [1.14-1.51]
  >30,000 reference reference
 Wok status   
  Doing paid work reference reference
  Unpaid family workers 1.21 [0.98-1.49] 1.06 [0.91-1.23]
  Seeking work 2.00 [1.54-2.60] 1.94 [1.53-2.46]
  Others 1.10 [0.97-1.26] 1.09 [0.96-1.34]
 Geographical residence   
  Rural residence reference reference
  Urban residence 1.02 [0.92-1.13] 1.10 [1.01-1.20]
Health-risk behaviours
  Regular smokers - yes 1.44 [1.28-1.63] 1.86 [1.21-2.84]
  Regular smokers - no reference reference
  Regular alcohol drinkers - yes 1.35 [1.20-1.52] 1.32 [1.13-1.55]
  Regular alcohol drinkers - no reference reference
Social contacts
  Colleagues – every week reference reference
  Colleagues – once or twice per month 1.12 [0.96-1.30] 1.03 [0.89-1.20]
  Colleagues – rarely or never 1.36 [1.19-1.95] 1.33 [1.19-1.49]
  Neighbours – every week reference  
  Neighbours – once or twice per month 0.98 [1.19-1.95] 1.11 [0.91-1.36]
  Neighbours – rarely or never 0.99 [1.19-1.95] 1.04 [0.91-1.19]
  Friends – every week reference  
  Friends – once or twice per month 0.96 [1.19-1.95] 1.10 [0.92-1.31]
  Friends – rarely or never 1.27 [1.10-1.47] 1.42 [1.24-1.63]
  1. * Those whose total score was 13 out of a maximum of 24 were classified as having high psychological distress.